International trademark protection
In principle, trademarks can be registered in any country worldwide, eg as a Japanese or Brazilian brand, at the respective trademark offices.
IR mark (WIPO)
Example: A holder of a German trademark would like to extend its protection to Liechtenstein, Switzerland, the Czech Republic and Poland. In this case, an application for international registration will be filed with WIPO in Geneva on the basis of the German mark (basic mark).
In order to enable applicants to register trademarks faster and more cheaply, a large number of countries, including most of the countries of Western and Eastern Europe, have become a special association for the international registration of trademarks (IR trademarks), the so-called Madrid Agreement about the international registration of trademarks and the Protocol of the Madrid Agreement.
Thus, with the IR brand, brand protection can be achieved in many countries at a relatively low cost with a single application.
The Madrid Agreement and the Protocol make it possible to submit a single application for international trademark registration to the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) in Geneva, instead of a large number of national filing procedures. The prerequisite for the application for international registration is that the applicant has a so-called basic mark in a Contracting State.
The audit is the same as for individual national trademark applications. Accordingly, in each claimed country, contradictions based on prior rights can be raised. In each country, the respective trademark office can check the brand for absolute grounds for refusal.
The protection period is 10 years and can then be extended as often as desired.
List of all 80 members of the Madrid Agreement and Protocol:
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Antilles ** Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan
Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi
Cabo Verde Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia
Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic
Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Eswatini Ethiopia
Fiji Finland France
Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana
Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary
Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy
Jamaica Japan Jordan
Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan
Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg *
Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar
Namibia Nepal Netherlands * New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway
Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal
Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan Thailand the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu
Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Tanzania United States Uruguay Uzbekistan
Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam
* Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands have a single European case law and trademark registration office (Benelux Office). Under the Madrid Agreement, trademark protection is claimed as if it were a country (Benelux). The protection therefore causes only a fee.
** The Netherlands Antilles belonged to the territory of the Netherlands, to which Belgian trade mark law does not apply. There is a separate trademark and trademark office. Protection is granted through its own extension of the protocol.